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Control of the translational machinery by amino acids

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Jan 1, 2014, Vol.99(1), p.231S [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Control of the translational machinery by amino acids
  • Author: Proud, Christopher
  • Found In: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Jan 1, 2014, Vol.99(1), p.231S [Peer Reviewed Journal]
  • Subjects: Ribonucleic Acid–RNA ; Amino Acids ; Protein Synthesis ; Cells ; Diet ; Phosphorylation
  • Language: English
  • Description: Amino acids are the precursors for the synthesis of proteins. In humans, approximately half of the 20 different amino acids are essential, ie, must be obtained from the diet. Cells must therefore take account of amino acid availability to achieve sustainable rates of protein synthesis. One of the major mechanisms involved in this is signaling through a complex of proteins termed mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1, which is activated by amino acids. In turn, mTORC1 regulates the production of ribosomes, the molecular machines that make proteins, and the activity of other cellular components required for protein synthesis. mTORC1 signaling promotes the transcription of the genes for ribosomal RNAs and many other components involved in ribosome production. It also positively regulates the translation of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for ribosomal proteins. Indeed, recent studies have shown that mammalian target of rapamycin signaling drives the translation of mRNAs for many anabolic...
  • Identifier: ISSN: 00029165 ; E-ISSN: 19383207

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