skip to main content
Show Results with:

TLR and NKG2D Signaling Pathways Mediate CS-Induced Pulmonary Pathologies (TLR and NKG2D Mediate CS-Induced Pathologies)

2013, Vol.8(10), p.e78735 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

No full-text

  • Title:
    TLR and NKG2D Signaling Pathways Mediate CS-Induced Pulmonary Pathologies (TLR and NKG2D Mediate CS-Induced Pathologies)
  • Author: Wortham, Brian W ; Eppert, Bryan L ; Flury, Jennifer L ; Morgado Garcia, Sara ; Borchers, Michael T
  • Contributor: Ryffel, Bernhard (Editor)
  • Found In: 2013, Vol.8(10), p.e78735 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
  • Subjects: Research Article
  • Language: English
  • Description: Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) can have deleterious effects on lung epithelial cells including cell death and the initiation of inflammatory responses. CS-induced cell injury can elaborate cell surface signals and cellular byproducts that stimulate immune system surveillance. Our previous work has shown that the expression of ligands for the cytotoxic lymphocyte activating receptor NKG2D is enhanced in patients with COPD and that the induction of these ligands in a mouse model can replicate COPD pathologies. Here, we extend these findings to demonstrate a role for the NKG2D receptor in CS-induced pathophysiology and provide evidence linking nucleic acid-sensing endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to COPD pathology through NKG2D activation. Specifically, we show that mice deficient in NKG2D exhibit attenuated pulmonary inflammation and airspace enlargement in a model of CS-induced emphysema. Additionally, we show that CS exposure induces the release of free nucleic acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage and that direct exposure of mouse lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract similarly induces functional nucleic acids as assessed by TLR3, 7, and 9 reporter cell lines. We demonstrate that exposure of mouse lung epithelial cells to TLR ligands stimulates the surface expression of RAET1, a ligand for NKG2D, and that mice deficient in TLR3/7/9 receptor signaling do not exhibit CS-induced NK cell hyperresponsiveness and airspace enlargement. The findings indicate that CS-induced airway injury stimulates TLR signaling by endogenous nucleic acids leading to elevated NKG2D ligand expression. Activation of these pathways plays a major role in the altered NK cell function, pulmonary inflammation and remodeling related to long-term CS exposure.
  • Identifier: E-ISSN: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078735

Searching Remote Databases, Please Wait