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Expression of Placental Members of the Human Growth Hormone Gene Family Is Increased in Response to Sequential Inhibition of DNA Methylation and Histone Deacetylation

BioResearch Open Access, 01 November 2015, Vol.4(1), pp.446-456 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Expression of Placental Members of the Human Growth Hormone Gene Family Is Increased in Response to Sequential Inhibition of DNA Methylation and Histone Deacetylation
  • Author: Ganguly, Esha ; Bock, Margaret E ; Cattini, Peter A
  • Found In: BioResearch Open Access, 01 November 2015, Vol.4(1), pp.446-456 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
  • Subjects: Original Research Article ; Cell Culture ; Gene Expression ; Gene Regulation ; Biology
  • Language: English
  • Description: The genes coding for human ( h ) chorionic somatomammotropin (CS), hCS-A and hCS-B , and placental growth hormone (GH-V), hGH-V , are located at a single locus on chromosome 17. Efficient expression of these placental genes has been linked to local regulatory (5′ P and 3′ enhancer) sequences and a remote locus control region (LCR), in part, through gene transfer in placental and nonplacental tumor cells. However, low levels of endogenous h CS/GH-V transcripts are reported in the same cells compared with term placenta, suggesting that chromatin structure, or regulatory region accessibility, versus transcription factor availability contributes to the relatively low levels. To assess individual h CS-A, CS-B, and GH-V gene expression in placental and nonplacental tumor cells and the effect of increasing chromatin accessibility by inhibiting DNA methylation and histone deacetylation using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (azadC) and trichostatin A (TSA). Low levels of h CS-A, CS-B, and GH-V were detected in placental and nonplacental tumor cells compared with term placenta. A significant >5-fold increase in activity was seen in placental, but not nonplacental, cells transfected with hybrid h CS promoter luciferase genes containing 3′ enhancer sequences. Pretreatment of placental JEG-3 cells with azadC resulted in a >10-fold increase in h CS-A, CS-B, and GH-V RNA levels with TSA treatment compared with TSA treatment alone. This effect was specific as reversing the treatment regimen did not have the same effect. An assessment of hyperacetylated H3/H4 in JEG-3 cells treated with azadC and TSA versus TSA alone revealed significant increases consistent with a more open chromatin structure, including the h CS 3′ enhancer sequences and LCR. These observations suggest that accessibility of remote and local regulatory regions required for efficient placental hGH/CS expression can be restricted by DNA methylation and histone acetylation status. This includes restricting access of the h CS 3′ enhancer sequences to available placental enhancer transcription factors.
  • Identifier: ISSN: 2164-7860 ; E-ISSN: 2164-7860 ; DOI: 10.1089/biores.2015.0036

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