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Is psychological membership in the classroom a function of standing out while fitting in? Implications for achievement motivation and emotions

Gray, DeLeon L.

Journal of school psychology. Volume 61 (2017); pp 103-121 -- Elsevier

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  • Title:
    Is psychological membership in the classroom a function of standing out while fitting in? Implications for achievement motivation and emotions
  • Author: Gray, DeLeon L.
  • Found In: Journal of school psychology. Volume 61 (2017); pp 103-121
  • Journal Title: Journal of school psychology
  • Subjects: Psychologie scolaire--Périodiques; Psychologues scolaires--Périodiques; Psychology--Periodicals; School Health Services--Periodicals; Child psychology--Periodicals; School psychologists--Periodicals; School psychology--Periodicals; Onderwijspsychologie; Periodicals; School psychologists; School psychology; Distinctiveness--Belonging--Identity--Motivation--Emotion--Adolescence; Dewey: 155.405
  • Rights: legaldeposit
  • Publication Details: Elsevier
  • Abstract: Abstract:

    Education researchers have consistently linked students' perceptions of "fitting in" at school with patterns of motivation and positive emotions. This study proposes that "standing out" is also helpful for producing these outcomes, and that standing out works in concert with perceptions of fitting in. In a sample of 702 high school students nested within 33 classrooms, principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were each conducted on half of the sample. Results support the proposed structure of measures of standing out and fitting in. Multilevel latent profile analysis was then used to classify students into four profiles of standing out while fitting in (SOFI): Unfulfilled, Somewhat Fulfilled, Nearly Fulfilled, and Fulfilled. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students of color and those on who paid free/reduced prices lunch were overrepresented in the Unfulfilled and Somewhat Fulfilled profiles. A multilevel path analysis was then performed to assess the direct and indirect associations of profile membership with measures of task value and achievement emotions. Relative to the other profiles, students in the Fulfilled SOFI Profile express greater psychological membership in their classrooms and, in turn, express higher valuing of academic material (i.e., intrinsic value, utility value, and attainment value) and more positive achievement emotions (i.e., more enjoyment and pride; less boredom, hopelessness, and shame). This investigation provides critical insights on the potential benefits of structuring academic learning environments to foster feelings of distinctiveness among adolescents; and has implications for cultivating identities and achievement motivation in academic settings.


  • Identifier: System Number: LDEAvdc_100043188164.0x000001; Journal ISSN: 0022-4405; 10.1016/j.jsp.2017.02.001
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Physical Description: Electronic
  • Shelfmark(s): ELD Digital store

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