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Gender and empowerment: assessing discrepancies using the resident empowerment through tourism scale

Boley, B. Bynum et al.

Journal of sustainable tourism -- Routledge -- Volume: 25 Issue: 1; (pages 113-129) -- 2017

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  • Title:
    Gender and empowerment: assessing discrepancies using the resident empowerment through tourism scale
  • Author: Boley, B. Bynum;
    Ayscue, Emily;
    Maruyama, Naho;
    Woosnam, Kyle M.
  • Found In: Journal of sustainable tourism. Volume 25:Number 1(2017); 20170102; 113-129
  • Journal Title: Journal of sustainable tourism
  • Subjects: Tourism; Sustainable development; LCSH: Tourism; LCSH: Sustainable development; Dewey: 338.479105
  • Rights: Licensed
  • Publication Details: Routledge
  • Abstract: ABSTRACT

    While gender equality and empowerment are core components of sustainable tourism, most of the literature has approached the concepts from qualitative perspectives, thus limiting the ability to empirically test for empowerment discrepancies between men and women. With this gap in mind, this study sought to test the widely held notion that empowerment discrepancies exist between men and women in tourism development. Discrepancies in psychological, social and political empowerment were tested for using the 12-item Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS). The RETS was administered across five sample populations, with results revealing that gender discrepancies were present, but surprisingly, not in the direction suggested in previous literature. In all three US samples, there was evidence that women were more likely to perceive themselves being empowered than men. The results from the two Japanese samples did not find any significant differences, which is of interest because Japan is traditionally seen a very patriarchal society. Applications of the RETS can be paired with qualitative research to better understand empowerment success stories and then to apply these best practices to other destinations where empowerment discrepancies are present. Future applications of the RETS are suggested to help initiate “gender mainstreaming” within the sustainable tourism literature.


  • Identifier: Journal ISSN: 0966-9582
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Physical Description: Electronic
  • Shelfmark(s): ELD Digital store
    5067.735000
  • UIN: ETOCvdc_100050587634.0x000001

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